1. Problem Definition
One of the important aspects should be considered in a project team is the leadership. For the new Garuda AACE 2015 Project Team we need to know what kind of leadership style that will be effective to the team along the process.
For the start, our Mentor gave the assignment to assess the team development stage using Tuckman Model, introduced by a psychologist, Prof. Bruce Tuckman in 1965. From there we can analyze what leadership style can be effectively implemented.
2. Identify the Feasible Alternative
Tuckman’s model originally began with four stages: Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing. A short overview of each stage is listed in the next figure:
Figure 1. Tuckman’s Four Stages of Team Development
Tuckman’s model explains the evolution of each member, forming interaction that will initiate some frictions in storming stage and later build the agreement after sometimes (norming stage). Final stage of this process will be performing, when each individual reach the same vision and perform collaboration together for group goals.
3. Development of the Outcome for Alternative
The only work to do by project member is filling 32 questions developed by Donald Clark. The answers then collected which will lead to score system with their relevant stages status. Indeed, group answers could be different than single personnel opinion and could be bias from the true condition. That’s why for Delphi Technique the P70 taken as start level because it’s not sure in the beginning everybody ready to collaborate serves in short period of first face to face session.
A resume table with all members scores present hereinafter:
Table 1. Survey Result using Donald Clark Questionnaire
4. Selection Criteria
Result of the calculation on the survey data using Delphi Technique tool used P70 level of confident present hereinafter:
Table 2. Calculation Result Using Delphi Technique P70
It shown on the Table 2 that currently Garuda AACE 2015 Project Team is in the Performing Stage (shown by higher score, Rank No. 1).
5. Analysis and Comparison of the Alternative
The small variance shown in Table 2 shows that the survey result is quite represent all the team members opinion that currently they are in the Performing Stage. The 5 days intensive course followed by group work and lesson learned from some team members who repeat the course may contribute to the team dynamic so they can arrive at the Performing Stage.
6. Selection of the Preferred Alternative
As the team development stage currently is in Performing Stage, we need to adapt leadership styles that effective in this stage. The following table summarizes style and objective for each stage of team development.
Table 1. Leadership Style
In the Performing Stage, the effective leadership is more in the observing and supporting style while focus in self development and self-direction.
7. Performance Monitoring and the Post Evaluation of Result
Tuckman tool together with leadership style adaption are useful for the Program Manager to establish strategy leading the team. Further monitoring on the team development stage should be planned so the leadership style and the team development stage always in line.
 Tuckman, Bruce W. (Jun 1965), Developmental Sequence in Small Groups. Psychological Bulletin, Vol 63(6), 384-399. doi: 10.1037/h0022100
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